Yes! Games like NBA Jam run using the MAME emulator, and you have full access to change MAME settings.
With NBA Jam (or any arcade game) open, press "TAB" on your keyboard to open the config menu. Then, using the arrow keys on your keyboard, navigate down to "Input (This Machine)" or "Input (This Game)". DO NOT change "Input (General)" as this will change the settings for all arcade games and may cause a lot of problems for you. Once in the remapping screen, you can navigate down to each mapping. To change one, highlight it (using arrow keys), and then press ENTER on your keyboard. Next, press the button you want to set this function to. If you make a mistake, you can press DELETE on a highlighted item to reset it. Note that you can map multiple buttons to a single function, and you can also map button combos to a single function (so that it's only triggered if 2 buttons are pressed simultaneously). If you'd like to learn more about this, google "MAME input mapping" and you'll find a wealth of information!